Apogee - The point in a satellite's orbit that is most distant from a planet.
APXS - Alpha-Particle-X-Ray Spectrometer
ARES - Advanced Rover Engineering and Science Tool. The software scientists and engineers will use to "drive" the rovers.
ATLO - Assembly, Test and Launch Operations
Breadboard - The preliminary assembly of an instrument or system. The process continues with brassboard prototype, engineering model, and then flight model.
CCD - charge coupled device. A type of solid-state detector used in cameras.
CCT - Compositional Calibration Target.
CDR - Critical Design Review
Co-I - Co-Investigator
Delta II - Launch vehicle that will be used for the MER Project.
DSN - Deep Space Network
DTE - Direct to Earth communication between rovers and earth without orbiter relay.
ECR - Engineering Change Request
EDL - Entry, Descent and Landing
EM - Engineering Model. Precursor to flight model.
ESA - European Space Agency
Fairing - A shell located at the top of a launch vehicle that contains the payload or spacecraft.
FIDO - Field Integrated Design and Operations
FM - Flight Model
Gravity Assist - The maneuver a spacecraft uses to increase velocity without using fuel. It flies by a planet and uses the influence of that planet's gravity to get a slingshot-type burst of speed.
GRS - Gamma Ray Spectrometer. Science instrument on Mars Odyssey Orbiter.
Hematite - A type of iron oxide mineral that usually, but not always, forms in association with liquid water.
HGA - High Gain Antenna
Hydrothermal - "Hydro" for water and "thermal" for heat. Hydrothermal systems on Earth support life today. A hydrothermal deposit could contain signs of ancient microbial life.
IDD - Instrument Deployment Device (the arm of the rover).
IPS - Instrument Positioning System.
KSC - Kennedy Space Center
LGA - Low Gain Antenna
MER - Mars Exploration Rover
MGS - Mars Global Surveyor
MI - Microscopic Imager
Mini-TES - Miniature-Thermal Emission Spectrometer
MOC - Mars Orbital Camera
NASA - National Aeronautics and Space Administration
Olivine - A shiny, green mineral found in many igneous rocks that have a high iron and magnesium content. In the presence of liquid water, olivine often alters to form other minerals (such as goethite, maghemite and hematite)
ORT - Operational Readiness Test
Pancam - Panoramic camera.
PDR - Preliminary Design Review
Perigee - The point in a satellite's orbit that is closest to a planet.
PI - Principal investigator
RAT - Rock Abrasion Tool
Regolith - the "soil" that covers the solid rock on a planet's surface.
S/C - spacecraft
Sol - One Martian Day (24.6 earth hours)
UHF - Ultra High Frequency
THEMIS - Thermal Emission Imaging System. Science payload on Odyssey Orbiter to examine the geology of Mars.
WITS - Web Interface for Telescience. A web-based commanding tool for FIDO field tests.